Sunday, August 23, 2020
Friday, August 21, 2020
Decentralization and Democratization in Indonesia Part Six Exercises and Implications The adjustments in Indonesia have been incrementalWe still have the New Order, or its majority. Anyway, the destructive parts are as yet reigning in. We have another organization yet the New Order holds returning different ways. Dwight T. King It is an oddity that, in a period when majority rules system appears to have risen as the absolute most satisfactory type of political association, an ever increasing number of individuals in both develop and youthful vote based systems are separating from the political procedure. Knight, Chigudu Tandon (2002) Ã¢â¬ ¦a breakdown of a tyrant system might be reversedÃ¢â¬ ¦even if majority rule government is built up, it need not be united. Under specific conditions, popularity based foundations may deliberately produce results that cause some politically significant powers to decide on dictatorship. Consequently, merged majority rules system is just one among the potential results of breakdown of tyrant systems. Pzeworski (1991: 51) Presentation The conversation in past sections gives an establishment to significant hypothetical bits of knowledge with respect to the nature and the importance of decentralization in Indonesia, just as its connection to democratization in the areas. I have underlined how decentralization rehearses in the districts advance mainstream investment in neighborhood political procedures past constituent cooperation. All around, the encounters of Bandung District and City of Cirebon in executing decentralization somewhere in the range of 1945 and 2006 loan backing to the contention that decentralization doesn't really prompt the development of nearby vote based system inside which neighborhood customary individuals can apply their capacity to fundamentally impact neighborhood dynamic procedure. Despite the fact that advancing majority rule government has gotten one of the expressed objectives of a few decentralization laws, their requirement in the two areas has not advanced important consideration of nearby common individuals in neighborhood political procedures past discretionary support. Truth be told, it has been the most vulnerable purpose of decentralization rehearses in the two areas. In general, the two contextual analyses share a comparable topic, to be specific that force remains really amassed in the hands of neighborhood elites and thus, nearby networks are continually underestimated. Against this background, in this part, I will look at various elements which have surrounded the majority rule capability of the decentralization program in Indonesia. In view of the encounters of an assortment of nations, a few scholars recommend that effective decentralization approaches are dependent upon certain individual or aggregate essentials. These include: a high level of focal state limit, an all around created common society, solid political will among national just as neighborhood political elites, solid social help, a long understanding of vote based system, a settled multi-party framework, solid empowering lawful structures, and a culture of responsibility, and so on (Rondinelli, McCullough Johnson 1989: 77-78; Crook Manor 1995: 327; Ardaya Thevoz 2001: 220; Heller 2001: 138-139). With respect to affirmation, experts likewise accentuate that the degree to which these conditions work shifts across nations. This implies a few conditions work generally well in specific nations, however in others they don't viably encourage the expressed objectives of decentralization arrangements (Kulipossa 2004: 771). Likewise, Smoke (2003: 12) and Kul ipossa (2004: 772) additionally cause to notice the way that there are situations where decentralization can accomplish its latent capacity benefits without those conditions, just as situations where the vast majority of those requirements are set up, however decentralization has been sabotaged. Against the above line of figured, I would contend here that to a limited degree, the unfulfilled law based capability of decentralization rehearses in Bandung and Cirebon can likewise be related with the nonattendance of a portion of the above great conditions. These incorporate feeble political will among both national and neighborhood political specialists, the nonappearance of a dynamic common society, and the absence of a mindful open. Obviously, these components differ across time and systems. Most importantly, the nonattendance of these great conditions for satisfying the majority rule capability of decentralization seems to result from three angles: first, from the start, decentralization in Indonesia has been seen and grasped by Indonesian political elites principally as an issue of political technique; second, the long-standing tyrant arrangement of government; and third, the power of down to business over political decentralization approach, both normatively and experiment ally. Decentralization in Indonesia: a matter of systems political methodology? Among the most significant elements which decides the plan and the genuine acts of decentralization and thus, its normal results (e.g., improving open assistance conveyance, keeping up national mix and advancing nearby majority rule government) is the inspiration of key on-screen characters in receiving the strategy in any case (Selee Tulchin 2004). The encounters of many creating nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America, for example, authenticate that the thought processes of government officials that grasp decentralization strategies are not really as righteous as the individuals who plan them. Indeed, Smoke and Gomez (2006 : 351; see additionally, for instance, Eaton 2001a; Shah Thompson 2004: 3-4) see that notwithstanding the productivity and great administration talk encompassing decentralization, the basic driving force has been inalienably political, implying that the reception of decentralization has been connected to focal governments want to achieve their own specific pol itical interests. The elements basic political intrigue are nation and system explicit. They incorporate, for example, supporting their authenticity according to residents as a rule in the midst of national political emergency, rivalry with rival ideological groups for well known help, pressure from subnational governments for additional forces, and open door for a decision gathering to unite power (Selee Tulchin 2004: 299-302; Smoke Gomez 2006 : 351). Numerous spectators accept that these sorts of political thought processes have incompletely represented the disappointment of decentralization rehearses in many creating nations to convey its majority rule potential (Eaton 2001a; Friedman Kihato 2004; Oxhorn 2004). Indonesias decentralization experience isn't a special case to the above marvel. In spite of the fact that advancing democratization has been one of the expressed objectives of Indonesias decentralization programs, there has been critical hole among talk and reality. The nonstop minimization of neighborhood individuals from nearby political procedures has been somewhat established in the Ã¢â¬Ëundemocratic political intentions of both national and neighborhood political elites in embracing and executing decentralization arrangement. As clarified in Chapter Three, decentralization in Indonesia has never been built in a political vacuum. Thus, I would contend that the degree, example and procedure of decentralization has been unequivocally impacted by, acquiring Montero and Samuels term (2004: 5), political determinants, i.e., system reactions to changing conditions and motivators inside the setting of quick political and monetary changes. During the insurgency period, decentralization strategies perceived the guideline of broad self-sufficiency in all locales of the recently free Republic. Be that as it may, such arrangements were really built by national political elites as a methods for building up and keeping up national authority over numerous previously working nearby governments in those districts recently involved by the pioneer government. The polices were additionally developed to satisfy other political closures, to be specific to increase worldwide acknowledgment, as contained in both Law No. 1 of 1945 and No. 22 of 1948 even with Dutch allegations that Indonesia was a manikin condition of the Japanese. Along these lines, regardless of legitimate cases that decentralization was held onto as a basic methodology in appearing a law based framework due to the countrys size and assorted attributes, the grasp of the approach during this period was not truly identified with the expectation of creating important fa ir framework inside the nation since those two essential laws were not trailed by any reasonable operational headings at all on how a vote based arrangement of government would be made on the ground. This case is underscored by the way that there was no noteworthy modification as far as nearby political procedures in Bandung, Cirebon or different districts in the nation. As Maryanov (1958: 9) additionally watched, A significant number of the organizations and practices embraced or used by autonomous Indonesia have been impressions of those set up by the Netherlands East IndiesÃ¢â¬ ¦alterations in legislative structure ended up being minorÃ¢â¬ ¦patterns of regulatory conduct remained established in the Dutch conventional methods. As needs be, the encounters of both Bandung and Cirebon during post-freedom until mid 1950s uncovered that, aside from the foundation of nearby government structures, the requirement of Law No. 1 of 1945 and No. 22 of 1948 permitted neither viable decentralization nor democratization in the districts. Obviously, the political circumstance during progressive time likewise added to the constrained authorization of the strategies in the locales. By a similar token, there were three definitive political components which drove national political elites to embrace propelled decentralization strategy as contained in Law No. 1 of 1957 which Ã¢â¬Å"greatly expanded the intensity of chose administrative gatherings in the areas, rules, and municipalitiesÃ¢â¬ and set for more extensive territorial position vis-Ã -vis the focal government (Feith 1962: 552). These variables were, initial, a sort of political guarantee by the legislature of Republic of Indonesia to the previous constituent conditions of the Repu
Posted by Gail Koenig at 11:34 PM
Monday, July 13, 2020
How to Improve Your Professional Writing Skills Boost Your Professional Writing Skills With These Helpful Tips Boost Your Professional Writing Skills With These Helpful Tips Professional writing is quite different from your typical college essay. Itâs a skill you donât necessarily get to practice until you enter the working world, but itâs something youâre going to use quite often. From sending client emails to speaking with management and reporting on tasks and projects, youâre going to be doing a lot of professional communication. Thatâs why itâs important to take the time to hone in on your skills nowâ" so you can only get better from here. Try some of these tips and tricks to help you develop your skills and ace your new job, wherever it takes you. Make Emails Personal When writing emails, whether youâre speaking to a client or the CEO of the company, donât be stiff and robotic. Use their name, address their specific situation, and donât sound like a walking marketing slogan. Ask the recipient how their weekend was, or if they are going on vacation wish them a great trip. This shows you care and want to form a professional relationship with them. Avoid Slang You arenât talking to your best friend after class. You are speaking to your employer, your clients, and the other people who are running the business that pay your bills. Donât use emoticons, happy faces, âlol,â or any other informal, unprofessional methods of speaking that will potentially turn off all of your audience members and possibly flag you as unfit for the job. Read Your Document Out Loud Donât just rely on Grammarly or your word processorâs built-in spell check. Read your document out loud and hear how it really sounds. If it sounds funny, revise it. Computer technologies donât always catch those awkward sentences that your brain can, so make use of every tool available to youâ" even your own mouth. Give Examples and Specific Details The more specific you are, the more you can show that you know what youâre talking about and that you have done your research. Give examples wherever you can. Point out something specific that people may have not realized, indicating how much thought you put into your job. Get Professional Writing Help For The Push You Need At Homework Help Global, we provide a variety of services that can help you through every stage of your life, from your first assignment in college to your first big professional document in your very first career job. From presentations to seminars, charts, and technical reports, weâve got you covered so you can focus on being the best you can be. Order your professional documents now to get ahead of the game. References: American Management Association. (n.d.) Business writing tips for professionals. American Management Association. Retrieved from business-writing-tips-for-professionals.aspx. Quick Base. (2013). 10 ways to improve your professional writing. Quick Base. Retrieved from 10-ways-to-improve-your-professional-writing. How to Improve Your Professional Writing Skills Boost Your Professional Writing Skills With These Helpful Tips Boost Your Professional Writing Skills With These Helpful Tips Professional writing is quite different from your typical college essay. Itâs a skill you donât necessarily get to practice until you enter the working world, but itâs something youâre going to use quite often. From sending client emails to speaking with management and reporting on tasks and projects, youâre going to be doing a lot of professional communication. Thatâs why itâs important to take the time to hone in on your skills nowâ" so you can only get better from here. Try some of these tips and tricks to help you develop your skills and ace your new job, wherever it takes you. Make Emails Personal When writing emails, whether youâre speaking to a client or the CEO of the company, donât be stiff and robotic. Use their name, address their specific situation, and donât sound like a walking marketing slogan. Ask the recipient how their weekend was, or if they are going on vacation wish them a great trip. This shows you care and want to form a professional relationship with them. Avoid Slang You arenât talking to your best friend after class. You are speaking to your employer, your clients, and the other people who are running the business that pay your bills. Donât use emoticons, happy faces, âlol,â or any other informal, unprofessional methods of speaking that will potentially turn off all of your audience members and possibly flag you as unfit for the job. Read Your Document Out Loud Donât just rely on Grammarly or your word processorâs built-in spell check. Read your document out loud and hear how it really sounds. If it sounds funny, revise it. Computer technologies donât always catch those awkward sentences that your brain can, so make use of every tool available to youâ" even your own mouth. Give Examples and Specific Details The more specific you are, the more you can show that you know what youâre talking about and that you have done your research. Give examples wherever you can. Point out something specific that people may have not realized, indicating how much thought you put into your job. Get Professional Writing Help For The Push You Need At Homework Help Global, we provide a variety of services that can help you through every stage of your life, from your first assignment in college to your first big professional document in your very first career job. From presentations to seminars, charts, and technical reports, weâve got you covered so you can focus on being the best you can be. Order your professional documents now to get ahead of the game! References: American Management Association. (n.d.) Business writing tips for professionals. American Management Association. Retrieved from business-writing-tips-for-professionals.aspx. Quick Base. (2013). 10 ways to improve your professional writing. Quick Base. Retrieved from 10-ways-to-improve-your-professional-writing.
Posted by Gail Koenig at 3:16 AM
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Despite its impressive name (which means five-horned face), Pentaceratops really only had three genuine horns, two big ones over its eyes and a smaller one perched on the end of its snout. The two other protuberances were technically outgrowths of this dinosaurs cheekbones, rather than genuine horns, which probably didnt make much difference to any smaller dinosaurs that happened to get in Pentaceratops way. Name: Pentaceratops (Greek for five-horned face); pronounced PENT-ah-SER-ah-topsHabitat: Plains of western North AmericaHistorical Period: Late Cretaceous (75 million years ago)Size and Weight: About 20 feet long and 2-3 tonsDiet: Plants Distinguishing Characteristics: Enormous bony frill on its head; two large horns above eyes About Pentaceratops A classic ceratopsian (horned face) dinosaur, Pentaceratops was closely related to the more famous, and more accurately named, Triceratops, although its closest relative was the equally large Utahceratops. (Technically, all of these dinosaurs are chasmosaurine, rather than centrosaurine, ceratopsians, meaning they share more characteristics with Chasmosaurus than with Centrosaurus.) From the tip of its beak to the top of its bony frill, Pentaceratops possessed one of the largest heads of any dinosaur that ever livedÃ¢â¬âabout 10 feet long, give or take a few inches (its impossible to say for sure, but this otherwise peaceful plant-eater may have been the inspiration for the huge-headed, human-munching queen in the 1986 movie Aliens.) Until the recent discovery ofÃ the evocatively named Titanoceratops, which was diagnosed from an existing skull previously attributed to Pentaceratops, this five-horned dinosaur was the only ceratopsian known to have lived in the environs of New Mexico toward the end of the Cretaceous period, 75 million years ago. Other ceratopsians, such as Coahuilaceratops, have been discovered as far south as Mexico. Why did Pentaceratops have such a huge noggin? The most likely explanation is sexual selection: at some point in the evolution of this dinosaur, huge, ornate heads became attractive to females, giving big-headed males the edge during mating season. Pentaceratops males probably butted each other with their horns and frills for mating supremacy; particularly well-endowed males may also have been recognized as herd alphas. Its possible that the unique horns and frill of Pentaceratops aided with intra-herd recognition, so, for example, a Pentaceratops juvenile wouldnt accidentally wander off with a passing group of Chasmosaurus! Unlike some other horned, frilled dinosaurs, Pentaceratops has a fairly straightforward fossil history. The initial remains (a skull and a piece of hipbone) were discovered in 1921 by Charles H. Sternberg, who continued plying this same New Mexico location over the next couple of years until he had collected enough specimens for his fellow paleontologist Henry Fairfield Osborn to erect the genus Pentaceratops. For nearly a century after its discovery, there was only one named genus of Pentaceratops. P. sternbergii, until a second, northern-dwelling species, P. aquilonius, was named by Nicholas Longrich of Yale University.
Posted by Gail Koenig at 6:10 AM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
NeftalÃ Ricardo Reyes Basoalto, famously known as Pablo Neruda, is a remarkable Chilean poet born on July 12, 1904. He grew up in Temuco which is located in southern Chile. Ã¢â¬Å"Neruda is the most renowned poet of modern Latin American literature and one of the major poets of the twentieth century. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature in 1971Ã¢â¬ (McDuffie). Ã¢â¬Å"Numerous critics have praised Neruda as the greatest poet writing in the Spanish language during his lifetimeÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Pablo NerudaÃ¢â¬ ). Pablo Neruda worked to show the social injustices happening in his country. In addition to this, NerudaÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry is difficult to understand because of his use of language, and although his works have been translated to English, one will never thoroughlyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Furthermore, Neruda wanted to show the people from his country how they should view themselves and be content: Ã¢â¬Å"He spoke to them of their mountains and trees, of their r ivers and nocturnal flowersÃ¢â¬ (Garcia XI).It is obvious that their country is filled of beautiful features and they should to be proud. Ultimately, in Neruda Chileans had someone who whom they could identify with above the distinctive lives they all lived. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s easier to relate to someone who has been through similar things as you specially coming from the same country because you are able to connect with them on a different level. Between 1927 and 1935, Ã¢â¬Å"the government put Pablo Neruda in charge of a number of honorary consulships, which took him to Burma, Ceylon, Java, Singapore, Buenos Aires, Barcelona, and MadridÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Pablo Neruda - BiographicalÃ¢â¬ ). During this time he began writing, Residencia en la Tierra, which contain several poems. These poems seem unrealistic because they give a sense of fantasy. One of them being Ã¢â¬Å"CABALLO DE LOS SUEÃâOS,Ã¢â¬ this particular piece is about a unicorns and rainbows and how he travels to a differen t dimension. One may lose themselves in this type of poetry because we may want to be reminded of our childhood, a time where we believed things were real but in actuality were part of our imagination. Neruda was a communist who wanted to represent his country,
Posted by Gail Koenig at 11:06 PM
My life has been very interesting, living In Morocco and then moving to California and now IÃ¢â¬â¢m in Massachusetts and the Journey continues. Throughout the years I lived in so many houses and picked up so many memories. Each house had Its own design that made it some how special and unique. We will write a custom essay sample on Journey or any similar topic only for you Order Now But after all theyÃ¢â¬â¢re all places that I spent my everyday at and had fun with family and friends. The first time I entered Oakland, I felt the vibe of the city and It was Like love at first sight. The city was so energetic and so much different than my hometown. So I went to my etherÃ¢â¬â¢s neighborhood and It was In a very quiet area which I really liked because IÃ¢â¬â¢m not used to the city and all Its noise. Walked In home and looked around and knew that place going to be so fun to live In, the best place In the inure house was my bedroom which was so big you could open a super market in it. Then I walked out to the back yard that had all the essentials to a great barbeques party with all the seats and the grills and thanks to the weather the sun was there everyday. Because of my dadÃ¢â¬â¢s job we had to move from place to place. So we moved to Malden ND it was a big move because the area and the city was so different from what IÃ¢â¬â¢m used to. We moved to a house near the Malden river and I really liked the fact that it was in a quite area and the house itself was big enough for both of us. I spent my entire first day exploring the house from the first floor down to the basement. T was a really clean house and because it was renovated everything was basically brand new, but of course what really mattered to me was my bedroom which I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t Disappointed about at all because it met all my needs with the really comfortable bed ND the big windows that showed the river and let sunshine light up my room. The best room in the house was the kitchen even though I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to cook. But after all I really spent great days at my house and IM really grateful that its close to school. Rooney By amine-mean ENG 111 My life has been ver y interesting, living in Morocco and then moving to years I lived in so many houses and picked up so many memories. Each house had its own design that made it some how special and unique. But after all theyÃ¢â¬â¢re all places time I entered Oakland, I felt the vibe of the city and it was like love at first sight. The fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s neighborhood and it was in a very quiet area which I really liked because IÃ¢â¬â¢m not used to the city and all its noise. Walked in home and looked around and knew that place going to be so fun to live in, the best place in the entire house was my Because of my dadÃ¢â¬â¢s Job we had to move from place to place. So we moved to Malden used to. We moved too house near the Malden river and I really liked the fact that it but of course what really mattered to me was my bedroom which I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t best room in the house was the kitchen even though I donÃ¢â¬â¢t know how to cook. How to cite Journey, Papers Journey Free Essays string(152) " Hopkins is trying to get across the meaning that darkness is cruel or the equivalent to Ã¢â¬Å"LuciferÃ¢â¬ , compared to the brightness of daylight\." Area of Study Essay- Journeys The Oxford Dictionary defines Journey as Ã¢â¬Å"an act of traveling from one place to anotherÃ¢â¬ ; this could, of course, be taken literally. Instead, why not think of Ã¢â¬Å"placesÃ¢â¬ as emotional or mental situations? So you take a Journey between different emotional states. Ã¢â¬Å"The journey, not the arrival, matters. We will write a custom essay sample on Journey or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ã¢â¬ This statement is correct for all four texts I will be discussing. The Journey is more important than the arrival because it is the Journey that makes people who they are. On a life Journey there are tipping points that define who we become. On our life Journey, what Is the end, death or meeting beyond? What significance does death have to the person you have become? Nothing: in death we look back at who weÃ¢â¬â¢ve become, but we have become like that, not because of the situation that you are in at that moment in time, but the choices or paths that we took on our life Journey. A life Journey has bumps and dips that can sometimes feel like mountains or craters as deep as hell, but the Journey will always continue. It could be argued that we never really have a specific arrival point in the Journey, but have multiple points of arrival and departures. Does a life Journey ever really end? The journeys that are shown in the texts are inner journeys (spiritual, mental and emotional) that revolve around certain significant points in the subjectÃ¢â¬â¢s life Journey. The four texts that will be compared are; Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬â¢s GrandeurÃ¢â¬ -Gerald Manley Hopkins, Ã¢â¬Å"l wake and feel the fell and dark. To day-Gerald Manley Hopkins, Ã¢â¬Å"Reign Over MeÃ¢â¬ written and directed by Mike Binder and a visual representation of Journey. Ã¢â¬Å"GodÃ¢â¬â¢s GrandeurÃ¢â¬ contains a significant inner Journey. In the flirts four lines of the octet Hopkins describes a natural world through which GodÃ¢â¬â¢s presence runs like an electrical current. Alternatively in the last four lines of the octet he talks about how humans are robbed of their sensitivity to the beauty of what is left in nature, peo ple have become unaware of the wonders of the world around them. The sestets shifts In argument again, even though humans do not realize It, nature continuously offers the potential of power and re-blurt. Hopkins Is In awe of the beauty of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s presence all around him. Hopkins uses a metaphor of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s grandeur as an electric force. This suggests an undercurrent that is not always seen, but which builds up as a tension r pressure that occasionally flashes out in ways that can be both brilliant and dangerous. In this moment Hopkins is amazed at how rich and full of life God can make him, Hopkins emotions peak at a high at this point in time. Hopkins uses repartition of the word Ã¢â¬Å"trodÃ¢â¬ and triple rhyming words; have trod, have trod, have trod, all is seared with trade blared and smeared with toilÃ¢â¬ to emphasis the struggle of humans, continuous Journey, they have been on a journey for so long that they canÃ¢â¬â¢t see God clearly anymore, and the use of the word Ã¢â¬Å"smearedÃ¢â¬ is to exaggerate he same thing again, the screen between God and humans is getting murky and dirty, not easy to see through, so they are losing contact.. Hopkins is disappointed that humans have destroyed the land by building factories. Seeing this makes that man does not recognize His power and the beauty of nature; Ã¢â¬Å". Ã¢â¬ ¦ The soil is bare now, nor foot can feel, being shod. Ã¢â¬ This may mean that because humans are wearing shoes we are disconnected to nature, and we cannot feel GodÃ¢â¬â¢s presence because we have a barrier between us and the earth. Humans have been cutting down trees and ruining the Earth for centuries, we have made the soil bare. Once Hopkins realizes that humans have stopped being one with nature, it made him almost annoyed that we can Just ignore GodÃ¢â¬â¢s presence. Hopkins spirits are finally lifted again when he notices that there will always be the promise of re-birth, new life and Ã¢â¬Å"dearest freshnessÃ¢â¬ . In the last four lines of the sestets Hopkins employs imagery from nature to convey rejuvenation by saying Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦. Last lights off the black West went Oh, morning, at the brown brink eastward, springsÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ah! Bright wingsÃ¢â¬ meaning; that even though the sun goes down in the west he knows that God will bring it back up in the East, he as faith that God will keep the Earth surviving long enough that a similar cycle will happen with nature; that things will go back to how they were, fresh and rejuvenated. Also, Hopkins believes that eventually if God keep the Earth turning someone will eventually notice the beauty and wonder that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s presence makes. In this poem Hopkins is on an emotional Journey, he first starts by being amazed at GodÃ¢â¬â¢s presence, then his emotions change to almost angry at how human can be so ignorant, then when he realizes that God will always be there his emotions transform to astonishment at Gods persistence. WSDL it matter that he was astonished at the end of the poem, if you didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know how what occurred to redder him this way? The second text that I will be discussing is Ã¢â¬Å"l wake and feel the fell of dark, not dayÃ¢â¬â¢, this is a terrible sonnet by Gerald Manley Hopkins this poem, is an emotional Journey also. In this poem Hopkins is suffering from insomnia, he longs for the brightness of the day time. The darkness of night makes Hopkins feel claustrophobic, the poem emphasis his feelings of loneliness and isolation. The sonnet finishes with the consolation of sleep, while it opens with its impossibility. Hopkins starts this poem by stating that he wake up expecting day light, but unfortunately he is still stuck in the fall of darkness. The clever use of Ã¢â¬Å"fell of darkÃ¢â¬ , relates back to the fall of Adam and Eve, or how the Lucifer (the devil) is a Ã¢â¬Å"fallenÃ¢â¬ angel. Hopkins is trying to get across the meaning that darkness is cruel or the equivalent to Ã¢â¬Å"LuciferÃ¢â¬ , compared to the brightness of daylight. You read "Journey" in category "Papers" Hopkins is exhausted and he feels as though the night time is endless Ã¢â¬Å"But where I say Hours I mean years, mean lifeÃ¢â¬ . The last four lines of the octet describe how Hopkins is wondering where God really is, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ Eke dead letters, to dearest him that lives alas! Away. Hopkins has been trying to get a response from God for all the hours of the night, but he feels like pleading with God for sleep is pointless. He thinks that God is Just ignoring him. The first line of the sestets has a metaphor Ã¢â¬Å"l am gall, I am heartburn. Ã¢â¬ Hopkins is now feeling so terrible that is feels like he is the pain; the darkness is so overw helming that he feels that he himself has become the insomnia. Ã¢â¬Å"The lost are like thisÃ¢â¬ ¦. As I am mine, their sweating selves; but worseÃ¢â¬ Hopkins now feels like he can understand how Ã¢â¬Å"the lostÃ¢â¬ (damned) feel, hat they too; are trapped in never ending darkness. Hopkins emotional Journey in this poem moves from a pleading state with God, through self-pity then to an his suffering of insomnia, but disappointed with himself for being so. Between the two poems Hopkins emotions change of emotions from the Joyfulness of Ã¢â¬ËGods GrandeurÃ¢â¬ to the despair of Ã¢â¬Å"l wake and feel the fell of dark, not dayÃ¢â¬â¢ is a journey in itself. Hopkins must have experienced a pivotal moment in his life for his emotions to change so dramatically. Ã¢â¬Å"Reign Over MeÃ¢â¬ written and directed by Mike Binder has a very powerful inner journey (both mental and emotional). It is the story of a man named Charlie and his struggle to deal with the loss of his family in the tragedy of 9/1 1, Charlie suffers from Postgraduates Stress Disorder (PETS) and is helped through the struggle by his former college roommate Alan. In the movie, Charlie starts off weaving through the traffic on this motorists scooter, symbolizing that he is in his own world. Charlie is stuck in a loop the whole way through the movie, every day is a struggle to Just get up out of bed. He lost his family and he is constantly trying to shut that out, he pretends he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember any of that pivotal moment in time. He Just shut down. Quit work. He stopped wanting to talk about her. Then he acted like he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember them. Then he pretended like he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember us. Ã¢â¬ CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s in-laws are constantly trying to talk to him, while Charlie is Just trying to forget. He is in a state of denial for most of the movie, until Alan gets him to talk to someone. First he tries a therapist, but Charlie refuses to talk. Eventually Charlie confides in Alan and tells him the story of how he lost his whole world Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦.. And I felt them burning. Ã¢â¬ This is the beginning of a new Journey for Charlie; he has finally realized that he must member them to enable himself to move on. CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions peak at amazing highs and drop so low at times that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know if he can live with the pain of losing his family, but with the help of his in-laws and his friend Alan, CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s journey has gotten back on a more stable path. What Charlie went through, made his mind and soul so distressed that his Journey to recovery will never end, it will be a constant struggle to stay on the stable path. So this particular example of Journey has no arrival, but the process of his emotional peaks and falls has made his Journey a lot ore important than where he will end up. Again, does a life Journey ever really end? Will Charlie ever arrive at a point where is can Just stop? No, he must always continue The final text in a visual representation of a Journey, in the middle of the frame you are looking at a set of steps (outside) leading up to darkness with a caption above reading Ã¢â¬Å"Life is a Journey-EnJoy the Journey. Ã¢â¬ The steps in the visual are not perfect or straight, they are rough and uneven. This is a symbol meaning that life may not be easy; it will have parts that are unstable and scary. Also, the steps are leading up to rankness, this represents that we do not know where life will lead us, and it is unknown. If we knew where we were going what would be the point of the Journey? Why wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t we Just Jump around the hard parts and go straight to our destination? No one knows where life will take us; each decision has a separate path leading us to another choice. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t matter where we end up if there was no story of how we the place where we are standing at a certain moment in time is lit up, we can only see so far ahead of us. Once that light ends it is unrevealed where the path will lead. The caption above the image reads Ã¢â¬Å"Life is a Journey-EnJoy the Journey. Ã¢â¬ A life Journey has multiple inner Journeys; each inner Journey is important and significant. There would be no point to the Journey if we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t not enjoy each moment. Enjoy life; it is the only real Journey we ever undertake. Each inner Journey is experience differently by the main subject of the individual texts. In both of Hopkins poems he experiences two vastly opposing emotional states. One is admiration for GodÃ¢â¬â¢s presence, while the other is disappointment at how God can Just ignore Hopkins suffering. Neither one of his poems bring him to any kind of conclusion, therefore his Journey continues and does not arrive anywhere. In Ã¢â¬Å"Reign Over MeÃ¢â¬ CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s grief moves through the seven stages but does not conclude. He will always grieve but is stable enough for his life Journey to continue. Like Hopkins, CharlieÃ¢â¬â¢s Journey is not over when our involvement is over. In the visual representation we cannot see the end of the path so the only option is to persist up the steps, even though it is scary and unknown still the Journey continues. So what is the arrival without each separate step of the Journey? How to cite Journey, Papers Journey Free Essays Each personÃ¢â¬â¢s life is a journey on a contorted road dotted with bumps and craters. At certain points, the bumps could seem as high as mountains and the pits as deep as hell, making this journey called life appear quite despondent. Although occasionally, your predicaments are entirely fateÃ¢â¬â¢s blunders, but perchance, they are your own. We will write a custom essay sample on Journey or any similar topic only for you Order Now Your personal characteristics roughly resemble a steering wheel for your journey. They could be positive traits, which could steer you on a more decent path; or negative traits, which could steer you to a path thatÃ¢â¬â¢s, wellÃ¢â¬ ¦ not so decent. Although you have no control over fate, you have power over your own Ã¢â¬Å"driving skillsÃ¢â¬ , and could thus widen or narrow your chance for a smooth, prosperous journey. Also, it is beneficial to remember that you are not alone, for there are many other roads that coincide with yours, where others are conducting through their own journeys and floundering through their own bumps and craters as well. Drive together, and you could purvey support and encouragement for one another, and thus institute milder paths for all of you. Most prominently, no matter how harsh the terrain of your road becomes, just remember that you will pull through and be transformed for the better because of it. This optimistic philosophy that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve adopted had been much solace to me in my own journey in becoming a successful high school student. It was not at all easy. Although fate has been overall lenient to me, it was my Ã¢â¬Å"driving skillsÃ¢â¬ that tended to direct my course towards huge bumps. Despite my awareness of my own flaws and omissions, I still compulsorily reproached others and sought ways to exonerate myself. This was one of the worst traits I retain. It precluded me from obtaining responsibility for my choices and learning from past oversights, thus impeded my maturing process. For example, my projects were oftentimes undone till the last minute (including this one). I would think to myself, Ã¢â¬Å"I donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel like doing it today, so IÃ¢â¬â¢ll work on it tomorrowÃ¢â¬ . Thus the project was delayed further and further until there was no Ã¢â¬Å"tomorrowÃ¢â¬ for it anymore, and then I would end up working well over midnight while secretly scowling at the teacher for giving out such a tedious and inane assignment. Immaturity and refusal to admit my errors caused me to plunge into countless pits in my journey. The one positive trait that had proved to be highly efficient in boosting me out of these pits is ambition. I know that too much of it could corrupt a person, but so far it had only empowered my spirit with much-needed optimism. My greatest ambition is to become a renowned novelist; therefore every hardship and pain to me befits an inspiration for a potential novel. It is a most optimistic perception of things, and it had succoured me through many phases of emotional turmoil. Although my own choices and personal characteristics had prompted many of my dilemmas, a certain number of large bumps on this road did bluntly materialise without my causing them. An example of that would be my kindergarten teacher. Back then, I was excessively shy and timid. (I still am, but not as much). I mainly kept to myself and was far too apprehensive to participate in class activities. Consequently, I might have appeared to be rather slow or mentally challenged. That was exactly what my teacher assumed. She would openly denounce me as a retarded child in front of myself and all my peers, and I was at that stage in my life of accrediting whatever adults told me. Thus for a long time, I subconsciously retained the impression that I was somehow less than other kids. The lack of self-esteem had often induced me to fail before I even try. The other major obstacle that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve contended with was during my first years in the States. I had moved to Philadelphia, PA at the age of nine with primitive English comprehension. In addition, we were coerced to dwell in one of the most delinquent and precarious districts in West Philadelphia due to our low budgets. The despicable socio-economic status of my neighbourhood could be seen from the school I attended, which had metal detectors installed at its doors. I underwent a great deal stress both academically and socially due to problems of communication. Plus there were a number of students that discriminated against me because I had the lightest skin colour in my school. As a result, I developed paranoia towards my peers, which ensues me even now. Nevertheless, everybody undergoes their own adversities, shed their own tears, and abide their own pains. At these times of needs, friends, family, and other favourable resources are to be treasured more highly. I was never alone on this road, for many other roads that coincided with mine have brought much joie de vivre upon my journey. One of which who was always there behind me was my dad. I am not abashed to say that he is my best friend. There was a period in my childhood when he was not there for me. However, he made up for it by being the best father one could have. Not only did he did take the time to assist me with my homework when needed and spent plenty of quality time with me, he was always there with wisdom, encouragement, and consolation. The other momentous source of benefit is Canada. Moving across the Atlantic Ocean was undoubtedly the best thing that ever happened to me. The reason is that the education system in China is not only relentlessly harsh; it is sadistically cruel. Society has deemed that if you failed to attain a university degree, youÃ¢â¬â¢d be a disgrace. Your career and marital opportunities would be despicably downtrodden. In addition, China possesses an enormous population and too few universities to match, thus eliciting nervous breakdowns among many high school students, some were even impelled to commit suicide due to the immense pressure. I, on the other hand, am indescribably glad to be here in Canada, where I am much more likely to do well in high school and thus hold a promising future. Now here I am in grade 10 with a tolerable grade average and a healthy attitude towards school and life in general. Although this journey had been difficult and even toilsome at times, I pulled through. One of the merits that I have acquired from my past experiences is strength. (IÃ¢â¬â¢m not referring to muscles, of which I have none). Strength in mind and spirit is like steel, and the most sublime of its quality can only be heated through suffering. I do not mean to pity myself, but I do believe that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve suffered more than many other teenagers have. There are certain things that I have not mentioned in this assignment, deeper pits in the hidden trails of my memory. Nonetheless, each time I fall, I was obliged to obtain strength in order to rise. Thus each time I rose, I was a little stronger than before. My kindergarten teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s abuse, for example, had brought me much self-loathing, but not anymore. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s left is a searing urge within me to spite her by proving her wrong. Another lesson that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve learned through my journey up to this point is to appreciate all that life has to offer. Life is short, and my road could abruptly come to a halt at anytime. Thus it is prominent to savour each and every moment of it by focusing on the positive things. My struggles and desolation have procured me to value what I have in order to overcome depression. My family, friends, and other fortunate events in my life have been lights in times of darkness, reminding me that the world is not completely forlorn and bleak. Optimism, along with strength, is all that I need to carry on. And thus I go forth on this journey with the memories of all the people and places IÃ¢â¬â¢ve left behind. I know that as long as I possess a goal, I will never be lost. My goal as a successful high school student had been so far adequately accomplished, however, as always, there is much room for enhancement. It had been a most arduous but rewarding journey. My friends and family, especially my father, had made this journey much easier. Also, I would not overlook Canada, which is such an enlightening and lenient learning environment. All of these allies and resources have presented me with guidance in the right course. However, some of my personal characteristics, like irresponsibility, were inclined to steer me astray. Then again, other traits that I possess, like ambition, succoured me in the continuance of my journey. The bumps and craters that IÃ¢â¬â¢ve met along my journey held a large role in constituting the person that I am now. I have fallen so many times into the seemingly abyss of despair and struggled against the mirror for just a speck of self-esteem, but I have survived. I understand that there will be greater obstacles and barriers in the future, but I personally believe that pain is a thing to be prized. Someone who does not know pain would not appreciate joy, nor would he obtain the strength to make his journey worthwhile. You can also order a custom research paper, term paper, thesis, dissertation or essay on journey from our professional custom essay writing company which provides students with high-quality custom written papers at an affordable cost. How to cite Journey, Papers
Posted by Gail Koenig at 7:29 AM
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Perceptual Development a) Describe 2 studies of perceptual development (12 marks). b) Assess the way in which such studies help to explain the development of perception (12 marks). In the following essay I intend to describe two studies of perceptual development. I then intend to assess such studies and how they help to explain the development of perception. By perceptual development, I mean how animals and humans alike develop their seeing capabilities. This development of perception could be learnt or innate. By innate, I mean to be born with the ability. a) Gibson and Walk conducted a study in 1960. The study was investigating Depth Perception. The study involved a 6-month-old child, 24-hour-old chicks, kids and lambs. Gibson and Walk used a 'Visual Cliff' to conduct the study. The 'Visual Cliff' was comprised of 2 floors. On one side there was a check-board pattern, on the other side there is glass floor. Below the glass floor there was another floor with check-board pattern. This was placed so that an illusion of a cliff and depth was created. At first the child was placed and was found to be reluctant to go onto the glass. The child's reluctance could be seen as even with encouragement from the child's mother, the child refused to go onto the glass. The study was continued on chicks, kids and lambs. All subjects studied refused to go onto the glass. Held and Hein conducted a study in 1965. The study was investigating Depth Perception. The study involved two kittens. The kittens were kept in the dark for a period of eight weeks since their birth and for three hours per day they were kept in a 'Kitten Carousel'. The kittens were given appropriate name. 'Passive Kitten' and Active Kitten' were their names. The Active Kitten was given the ability to move freely at it's own discretion, during the eight weeks. The Passive Kitten was unable to move freely during the eight weeks. Both Kittens were released into the light. The Passive Kitten showed no evidence of perceiving depth. The Active Kitten did far better then the Passive Kitten. b) Studies like the above two help explain the development of perception. Studies do this by allowing us to understand if perception is learnt or an innate process. The first study suggested that their subjects could perceive Depth Perception. However the study did not clearly identify whether perception was innate or learnt. This could not be identified as the child's age created a 'time period' were perception could be learnt. To clarify this the study was conducted on animal subjects. All of the subjects could perceive depth. However the animal subjects walk from almost birth. This ability to walk suggests a different process of perception to the human perception. Perception in the animal subjects seems to be an innate process. The second study was confined to 'Kittens'. The study suggested that depth perception is learnt. This was suggested by the 'Passive Kitten', restricted from movement was unable to perceive depth once free. The kitten was unable to use sensory motor co-ordination. This suggests a link between perception and sensory motor co-ordination. The study suggested perception is learnt in kittens. Environment factors also may affect perception. The study had ethical concerns, the 'Passive Kitten' was 'crippled'. The Kittens parents may have a genetic affect on their behavior. The study does not suggest what type of kittens was investigated. For Example; 'Domestic or Non-Domestic'. There are other variations of Kittens (cats) and therefore this may be claimed as a variable. Hence making the results invalid. . Different types of Kittens usually require their parents for a varied period of their early life. This may affect the results. Both studies did not suggest what depth perception is like in 'Humans'. The studies were confined to animals, which can not communicate through any human created language and therefore misinterpretation can occur. Hence, the validity of the results comes into concern. Other studies of perception have occurred. However conducting studies of human perception is complicated, as it is not easy to generalise. Commonly studies are done on westernised subjects rather than subjects from third world countries. Studies suggest that cultural variation, environment and social aspects can have an affect on perception. Therefore many studies conducted up to date are invalid for not considering this issue as a variable. The studies reveal different results. However these different results enable me to understand the development of perception. This suggests that perception is developed in many different ways and therefore can not conclusively be used to generalise.
Posted by Gail Koenig at 9:21 PM